The way you decorate your house can affect to several fields of your life, some techniques below can help you to be more confident in designing your house:
1. In order to make your house look larger, bright colors such as white, yellow or blue are some among the good choice for you. The light color of the window curtain can help to reflect the natural light better than others and can make you feel your house larger.
2. Different level of colors in the house or in a room can make a room more vivid. The chairs with velvet cover in blue or with light color but having the emphasis can create the consistency for the room. For smaller details in the room, you can choose darker blue. You can even paint the ceiling of the room with the blue with different level of color, one with darker blue and the others with lighter blue to make the room more attractive.
3. The strange and special vignette in the wall paper or in the coverings of items and devices in the room can make the room more unique. However, if the distance of these vignettes is too far so the area of the room will be narrower. When you choose the wall papers or some cloths to decorate you have to remember some principles such as the distance between the vignettes from 10 -12 cm is too big for a small room while the distance of 5 cm or even smaller can be a wise way to make the room look larger.
Another exception for this principle is the use of vertical lines. You can choose some vignettes of big vertical lines, it will be better with plain and simple colors, in this case this can help to make the room larger and one more thing is that it can make the room look higher also.
4. Mirrors and glasses can make the room more diversified in terms of space. The glass drawers can create the large corner and space for the floor and the room, it will not hide the outlook of other things in the room. The mirror in the room can make the space larger, look like 2 spaces in the same room.
5. The size of the wooden furniture can affect to the room. Even though the big size of the table and sofa can create the luxury for the room but it can make the room more suffocating and narrower. You need to have some free and empty space in the room so you can easy move in or in case of need you can find it easy to move items and devices in the room.
6. How to arrange furniture in the room is very important. If you push all the furniture close to the wall then you can save a lot of space but it will make the room a boring feeling and outlook. So instead of placing all the furniture close to the wall you just push some piece of the furniture to the wall, for the rest you can freely to arrange them according to your desire.
7. The use of the multifunctional furniture can bring you a lot of benefits and comfort. The dining table can be used as the working table or the drinking table. So you can hold it when you do not use and move it to the place you would like to use for the certain purpose. It is really a smart way of using things and living in a small room, or even in a large room but still want to free space. There are many kinds and styles of the multifunctional furniture for you to choose or you can ask for the one which can meet your demand only.
8. Window is very important and necessary because it is the way for you to connect with the outside world and it can help the natural lights and air to come to your room. The color of the window should be in line with the color of the room.
9. You should make use of all the empty space in the room. The bookshelf should be reached to the ceiling of the room, the paintings and pictures should be placed in the high positions in the wall. If you do not have the space for storing things then you can hang them into the wall as the way to show artist things.
10. Finally, you should remove all the stuffs which you are not going to use out of the room. You can use the system of drawers or shelves to store tiny and small items which can make the room tidy, clean and open and of course larger and larger.
The structure and design of the house is considered appropriate and nice is when the structure is harmonized in separating space inside the house. But it can be presented by the harmonized coordination between the space inside and outside the house.
In order to have a good design and structure for the house, both inside and outside, the designer should research the location, environment, climate and so on and all elements which can effect to the life of the people living inside the house to make sure that people living inside can have the most comfortable feeling.
To make the house look nicer and can avoid some mistakes in design which can give some bad affects in terms of health and prosperity then the surrounding environment of the house should be harmonized with the house.
Therefore, the following techniques can help you to achieve the above targets.
Some techniques for house design
– When you build the wall surrounding the house, you should let the height of the wall higher than the roof of the house. Besides, at the same time to ensure the security for the house, the height of the wall should be 2/3 the height of the first floor of the house.
– Or you can decorate the house with some steel fence or sticks above the wall to make sure that the light outside can not be prevented by the wall of the house. So light can be reached to the house but the security of the house is still ensured.
– House should not be built near the big river because according to feing shui the water in front of the house is not considered a good sign for prosperity. On the other hand, the land and soil of the house near the river can not be firm as other so if there is no technical way to apply then the background of the house would be not solid enough to hold the whole frame of the house for a long time.
– House should not be built close or in the middle of the high building with a loss of glass because the reflection of glass into the house can make the people living inside feel uncomfortable and unsafe.
– The main door of the house should not be in front of the balcony or the long corridor because it can make the bad air will run directly to the center of the house.
– House should not be built near the railway because the noise can effect to the people living inside the house.
– The house should be chosen the right and good direction for building and the surrounding environment of the house should be nice.
– The house should not be built in the crossroad or in the corner of the road.
– The house surrounding can be better if could be decorated with green trees and plants or some ranges of flowers.
Military trend is becoming popular and popular in the world. In all fields of life people are fond of military trend, especially in fashion. But recently there is some field which is opening for the new military trend, it is for house decoration. Designer and house owner are now in the way of finding down the military style for the house and building.
Actually the military trend for house decoration has been used for long time ago, but it is just the way that some hunters because of their great love and interest for hunting then they will decorate their house with all things related to hunting, of course must have the hunting gun. But people do not call it the trend it is just the hobby of the hunters.
Increasingly, this is going to become a trend in house decoration because of its strange outlook and the great effect it can bring to the house.
The following can help you to imagine how a gun can be used for decoration and how gun decoration can make your house a great impression.
Normally, people will try to decorate the gun in the living room, so the below will focus on the living room of the house only. For other area in the house you can invent it yourself.
The real hunting gun for decoration
If you are the hunter or at least you have a hunting air rifle in your house so it can be a good option for you to use it as the decoration. Instead of putting it in the box in the storage when the hunting season is off you can take it off and decorate it in the wall of the living room. Of course there can be different kind of hunting gun such as air rifle, air gun and so on. For example, if you have a small air gun with short handhold it is not a good idea for you to hang into the wall. You should think a little bit such as you can buy some holder to put it in and place it in the table of the living room.
In case you have the air rifle, you can hang it in the wall. But different air rifle can have different weight so you have to depend on the weight of the gun to decide if you should hang it in the wall or not. For a long and light one, it is possible for you to hang it into the wall. For a heavy one, you should not to avoid any accident which may arise. In order to know about the weight of the air rifle you can visit to the air rifle center to check if you do not know.
But you should remember that you just use one side of the wall to hang the guns, do not hang it around the room so it can be so violent and can not bring the military style for you. You can hang only one big and long air rifle in the wall or you can mix 2 or 3 rifles if you have enough.
Because you are going to decorate a real gun, meaning a powerful weapon into the wall where a lot of people can be in so it is very important that you have to take out of all the bullets to make sure that no one will be hurt. This kind of decoration item should be out of the reach of the children for security purpose.
One more thing is about the wall for hanging the gun, it is better if you can re-decorate the wall because it can be boring if you hang the gun into the plain walls. Normally, people often stick wood and stone into the wall to create a different look and suitable background for the guns and rifle to be impressive on that.
Gun for decoration
For the military trend, a lot of decoration producers have introduced in the market a lot of guns and air rifles but for the purpose of decoration only. Looking at the product description we can find that normally the gun is designed for the wall decoration with the classical model and style. The guns can be made of paper, real timber and steel and some other materials. The price of them will vary based on the material it is made of. There can be a lot of size for the people to choose ranging from small to medium to large one. The color is also various. The outlook of the guns and air rifle is very similar to the real one which sometime a real hunter can recognize.
The guns can be sold in one or in a group. For a group the designers will help to arrange them in a certain shape so you just need to bring it and hold into the wall. There is a sticker in the guns for you to hang into the wall.
In order to make your living room in a good military performance you should take care of some other accessories. For some decoration shop, they can put the decoration gun into the frame so you can hang it as a picture in your living room. You can choose some military vignette to stick into your furniture, such as the picture of the guns and rifle or the troop.
The colors of the wall and colors of the furniture in the living room should be in line with the military style of the room also. Normally military colors could be dark green, brown, dark orange or yellow. You can mix these colors to create the whole feeling for the room.
Anyway, for some simple people, they just hang their guns and air rifles into the wall for normal decoration, when they need to use they will take it so they do not care so much about the general layout for the living room. It is just the special thing in their living room: the gun.
Nowadays,air compressors is becoming more and more popular, so buying guide about best air compressors is shared widely on the Internet, choose best air compressor for the money become is easy . But here we write about NOTICE WHEN USING THE AIR COMPRESSOR SYSTEM.
When your air compressor is placed at the appropriate place, ensured some technical requirements and regular maintenances, the time of using of the machine will be longer and you do not have to repair the damages sundrily, or bear the excessive noise of the machine …
Environment to place the air compressor
It is essential to place the air empressor in the appropriate place, the best is in a room which meet the following requests:
- The room is large and enough light to operate and maintain. The machine is kept sound insulation, stayed away from walls and the ceiling at least 1.2 meters. The room needs to be equiped with suitable ventilation windows.
- The environment is not allowed to be in high temperature (<40oC) as well as dust. The machine requires a cooling fan with the flow which is larger than the air compressor fan.
- Pay attention to the direction of the sunlight because it can affect the increase of the environmental temperature.
If the above conditions are ensured well, the machine will be seldom stuck with dust. The acidification process and other types of corrosion will happen slowly. If the air quality is under the best standard, you should install the filterequipment to clean the air.
This type of compressor can move around on the floor basing on the in – box structured and being placed on shelves. If you move it upstair, you must take measures to protect against corrosion.
Theinstallation requirements of the electrical system
- It’s better to set up a system that provides an independent source for the machine because it can prevent from the overload or the imbalance of three phases when connecting with other devices. Three phases has the internal stable voltage in the accordance with a nominal voltage of the motor, the voltage in the range of tolerance is 5% over the nominal voltage.
- Select correctly the electric cables that the machine requires.
- The proportion of the output and motor must be the same.
- Check to avoid the leakage (leaking) of gas line or water pipelines.
Check the electrical system safety:
Check the piping systemsafety
Check the position of the valves in the effective status, the output air supply valve is open.
Power on and boot the peripheral devices of the compressor such as air dryer at first.
- Booting the compressor and make sure that it is working as usual, such as the startup runtime, the noise when runningmachine, gas vapor pressure, lubricant pressure, air temperature, and then record all data.
- After a while, check the oil level again. If it is lesser or lower than the limit, add more the lubricant as required.
- If you see any unusual expressions, please press “OFF” or the emergency button, just restart after resolving all damages.
- The important notes when operating the machine
- Stop the machine immediately in case of any unusual sounds.
- Do not loosen pipes, do not open bolts and screws, or close the valves when there is the pressure.
- Fill the oil back if the oil level is too low.
- Operating should suit the changes including: the pressure, the pressure system, the temperaturesystem, the different partial pressure, the oillevel and the operating time.
Preservation and Maintenance
The amount of lubricant is an essential factor affecting the performance and operation of screw compressors. If oil shortage will cause some damages to the compressor, so please use special oil of screw compressors. This type of special oil used for screw compressors has very good quality, at about 66o C of viscosity level, which is very suitable for screw compressors. It is also a factor against degradation. It is quite difficult to dissolve into water to create milk – formedor foaming and anti-corrosion, etc …
Proper refrigerator temperatures (below 40[degrees]F) are crucial for safe food storage. If your fridge isn’t keeping its cool anymore, it may be time to upgrade. We tested 12 new models (see how, next page) in the popular French-doors-with-bottom-freezer style. The advantages of this design over a freezer-on-top unit: more space for wide items like platters, less clearance needed to open doors, and access to one side without letting warm air into the whole fridge. Our winners are Energy Star-rated and cost about $50 to $58 per year to run ($20 less than unrated units).
1 FRIDGE CHAMP SAMSUNG 26 CU. FT. FRENCH DOOR REFRIGERATOR (RF268ABRS, $2,500)
PROS Our best performer held constant, safe temperatures, even in a room heated to 90[degrees]F, and the crisper drawer kept lettuce vibrant for six days. The unit has two ice makers, a pizza compartment that holds a 16-inch frozen pie, and a unique spring-loaded freezer handle that makes even a packed drawer easy to open.
CONS Shelves are heavy and hard to remove to clean. The manual is not that helpful and contains errors.
2 SAFEST DOOR STORAGE WHIRLPOOL GOLD 25 CU. FT. FRENCH DOOR REFRIGERATOR (GISFSAXVY, $2,299)
PROS Unlike the majority of those tested, this fridge held constant temperatures under 40[degrees]F on the doors, which means highly perishable foods like yogurt and eggs can safely be kept there. Also nice is the door compartment that holds and dispenses a 12-pack of soda.
CON While the crispers kept lettuce pretty perky, the drawers don’t slide out easily, and the controls inside are hard to adjust.
3 EASY ORGANIZER GE PROFILE 25.8 CU. FT. FRENCH DOOR REFRIGERATOR (PFSS6PKXSS, $2,699)
PROS Tied with the top-rated Samsung for ease of use, this unit has sliding shelves and a variety of smooth-gliding drawers and bins, including a frozen-pizza compartment. In normal room conditions, the unit held uniform temperatures.
CONS Lettuce in the crisper went limp in less than a week. In a 90[degrees]F room, the freezer temperature climbed 10 degrees, though it was still cold enough to keep food safely frozen.
4 SLEEKEST LOOK KITCHENAID ARCHITECT II SERIES FRENCH DOOR REFRIGERATOR (KBFS25EVMS, $2,199)
PROS There’s no external water dispenser and thus no ice maker in the fridge door–so all of the internal refrigerator space is usable. Plus, every shelf is adjustable. Also available in black or white for $1,899.
CONS The water dispenser is inside, so you have to keep the fridge door open while filling a glass. Temperatures stayed constant over time, but not from spot to spot. Lettuce wilted in the crisper.
HOW WE TESTED
IN ORDER TO PICK THESE WINNERS, WE:
- Monitored temperature for uniformity between one spot and another and evenness over time. This was done both in a regular room-temperature setting and in our climatology chamber set to 90[degrees]F, with 90 percent humidity
- Assessed defrost cycles to see whether the temperature became drastically higher
- Evaluated how well the crispers held moisture (necessary for keeping veggies fresher)
- Checked whether the temperature was appropriately lower inside dell or meat drawers
- Rated the versatility of shelves and drawers, ease of use of controls, and cleanability
- Checked manuals for accuracy and clarity and called the companies’ customer service departments to determine their helpfulness
- Had consumers score the units on appearance
WHAT GETS A SPONGE REALLY CLEAN?
We worked with EMSL Analytical testing lab in Westmont, NJ, to find out. Consumers used sponges for a week in their kitchens, and the lab tainted others with three common pathogens: salmonella, E. coil, and pseudomonas. We tested six cleaning methods–the dishwasher, microwave, and washing machine; bleach, ammonia, and vinegar soaks–to see which removed the most bacteria.
AND THE BEST GERM KILLER IS…
The bleach solution killed 99.9 percent of the three bacteria strains from all our test sponges (scrub and regular cellulose), a benchmark based on the EPA’s requirement for sanitization of non-food-contact surfaces. Mix 3/4 cup of bleach in one gallon of water, and soak the sponge for five minutes. The microwave and the dishwasher were the next most effective, zapping 99.9 percent of germs from the home-used sponges and from the lab-treated scrub sponges. However, on the lab-treated cellulose sponges, microwaving just missed the mark for E. coil (99.83 percent reduced), and the dishwasher didn’t quite get all the salmonella or E. coil (99.88 and 99.86 percent reduced, respectively). Put a sponge into a regular dishwasher load, using the “heated dry” setting. In the microwave, saturate the sponge (we used 1/4 cup of water for scrub sponges and 1/2 cup for cellulose); heat on High for one minute (scrub) or two minutes (cellulose). Keep an eye on it. Clean sponges weekly, and toss shabby ones.
HOW DID THE OTHERS DO?
A five-minute soak in full-strength vinegar averaged 99.6 percent bacteria elimination; in full-strength ammonia, 97.0 percent. The washing machine proved least effective, killing on average 93.0 percent of bacteria.
Right Cutting Board
Essential for food prep, a cutting board can pose risks if you use it for raw meat and then for another food without properly washing it between uses. We evaluated 31 boards of plastic, wood, Corian, glass, bamboo, cork, and paper composite to see how they held up to chopping and cleaning.
PLASTIC BOARDS are your best bet–comfortable to cut on and dishwasher-safe (use the “sanitize” cycle after cutting meat; if your dishwasher doesn’t have one, bleach the board, as with sponges, above). The Oxo Good Grips Over-the-Sink Cutting Board ($30) topped our test. No counter is required (though it can be used on one). Great basic versions:
A FEW WORDS ON WOOD Attractive and a pleasure to work with, wooden boards should be hand-washed to better preserve their finish and shape, even if the manufacturer claims otherwise–one “dishwasher-safe” board fell to pieces within 28 cycles. To sanitize after cutting raw meat, bleach. J.K. Adams Co. Pro-Classic ($23 to $54.50) proved resistant to odors, breakage, and warping. It moved when we chopped, but placing a damp towel underneath kept it stable (a good tip for any cutting board that shifts).
DIDN’T MAKE THE CUT While glass cleaned up very well and showed no wear, we found it so slippery it was downright dangerous to use. Corian stained easily, wasn’t that pleasant to cut on, and is pricey. We didn’t like composites and cork as cutting surfaces, finding the former too hard and the latter too soft. Bamboo looked stained and faded after our tests.
Badly designed, energy-wasting, full of chemicals that destroy the atmosphere, motor turning over noisily: what modern convenience is this? Don’t look in your garage, look in your kitchen: it’s your refrigerator.
Refrigerators are the most frequently used home appliance. They are also one of the biggest energy-eaters: your average floor-model fridge/freezer gulps down about 3,000 watt-hours of electricity a day. And the coolant used until very recently in the vast majority of them was Freon–a gas that contains ozone-destroying chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs).
One basic design flaw in many refrigerators is the placement of the compressor that drives the coolant. Put next to or below the cooling compartment, the motor actually warms up the area around the compartment, requiring extra energy just to break even. (Early refrigerators with the motor on top were more efficient.) Upright models also lose cool air every time you open the door–it spills out the bottom and is replaced by warm air, forcing the compressor to work harder. And in conventional designs, air flows between the coils and the storage compartment; the colder coils attract moisture and ice up, once again making the compressor work harder. This shortens storage life as well by lowering the humidity and causing your food to dry out.
The Clean Air Act of 1990 and the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987 both built a fire under mainstream appliance technology–one by regulating CFCs and mandating a phaseout by 2000; the other by setting minimum efficiency levels for appliances, and by providing for labeling to inform consumers about the relative energy usage of different models. Recently, responding to new, even more stringent federal efficiency standards, a group of utilities bankrolled an EPA-sponsored contest to encourage design of a superefficient refrigerator. The prize: $30 million. The winning design, from Whirlpool, uses 75 percent of the energy allowed by current federal regulations, and does it without CFCs.
Even before the big manufacturers were forced into the arena, several small ones were already producing energy-efficient chillers–at least one, the Sun Frost, more efficient than Whirlpool’s winning entry. (The small makers were frozen out of the competition because, according to contest rules, they turn out too few units a year to qualify.) These ultra-efficient fridges, often custom-designed to run on 12-volt direct current, use only a tenth as much power as standard models, and have been popular with energy-independent homesteaders for years now. The high cost of these units can be off-putting, though at current energy prices they should make up the difference in reduced utility bills over their 15- to 20-year lifetime.
Freon is still used in these boxes, though makers big and small will be bringing out CFC-less models soon using a reconfigured variety, Freon134, that doesn’t contain chlorine. Sun Frost recently made a demonstration model using cyclopropane as the coolant; German and Japanese manufacturers are also experimenting with alternatives to Freon.
If you’re not quite ready to junk your dinosaur, update it. Motor controllers, available in many hardware stores, regulate electricity to the compressor motor, so that it only gets as much power as it needs to run. You can buy plastic flaps like those in supermarket coolers; these help keep cool air inside where it belongs. Putting a thermometer in the cooling compartment will help you monitor temperature and adjust for maximum efficiency.
And when the time does come to give the old fridge the boot, recycle it. Some utilities sponsor recycling programs; others will give you advice on how to keep your old appliance out of the landfill and its coolant out of the atmosphere.
Today with modern technology, the refrigerator was not used CFCs polluting the atmosphere, instead of the new technology environmentally friendly. This will help protect the environment, protect the earth.The CFC was not used to reduce emissions of greenhouse
The conventional refrigerator uses and wastes a great deal of energy, but extremely efficient models are available from several small manufacturers. An ordinary refrigerator can be updated to use less energy with a motor controller and plastic flaps to keep cold air inside.
If you want to set up a nice Home studio, it is essential to buy studio monitor. So you’re thinking about studio monitors and the type you might need. Most of the people think that for quality product for the best business, you must need the best studio monitors. From where can you buy it? In the market there are several shops and several brand. Among the entire brand you can buy your desired one from Studio Monitor HQ which is famous brand in the market.
Everyone in the sound business will believe that after the production of the music it is badly necessary to test it through the sound system. So a high quality sound system is a must for the ideal company who wants to establish business among the competitors in the market. So for the assessment of your product, you must have a quality sound system. A studio monitor’s main purpose is to paint an accurate audio image of the raw music, with no falsified emphasis on any particular frequency. It will bring honesty and purity in your business. Your ear can deceive you, your friend can deceive you, but the best monitor will present you what you have produced.
Like all things of your life and desire, you must consider what you want. Do you think buying or renting will give you what you are looking for? Do you wish to get a monitor which will provide you the honest sound for your business? A studio monitor might sound transparent, but that transparency will allow you to root out any of your sound system’s deficiencies. Do you want other features from your monitors? You might think of Hi-Fi sound system, but for quality products never go for that.
How a good monitor can help you? A good monitor will refrain from exaggeration frequencies. Actually the right monitor is the one which your ears like. It is better to check out different monitors using the same CD to find out the perfect one. After making a choice, get it home and set them up where they sound the best to you.
You know for quality product, you must pay high. So take decision according to your budget. Never judge something with emotion. You know best how much you can afford. In the market you will find high to low quality products. I think you had better avoid low quality products. If you have less budget, take medium one that will be helpful for you and for your quality products. From $250 to $10, 000 you can buy the products.
What size monitor is best for you? Most of the people suggest that 8” monitor is perfect for the home studio. It will provide you low frequency and you can put together a good mix. For a better speakers, look for the local music shops. They can provide you the best one. With your monitor, you had better take a pair of speakers and listen with your bare ear which will judge the right direction.
Wireless is on its way to becoming a key word in telecommunications during the 1990s. The wireless market is expected to explode in several areas, according to industry prognosticators.
Products and services ranging from personal communication services (PCS), to wireless loop products, to the wireless office–as well as dozens of new technologies and applications–are expected to be introduced between now and the year 2000.
“We are entering a revolution in the world of wireless communications,” Motorola Chairman George M.C. Fisher told SUPERCOMM ’92 attendees last month. “Today, the convergence of microelectronics, wireless digital communications and computing is bringing new opportunities that we’ve never seen before.”
The estimated $3-trillion market in telecommunications equipment expected by the year 2010 could include about $600 billion in wireless products and services, Fisher said.
The incredible growth rate in the cellular industry is often pointed to by those who believe the appetite for wireless products and services could prove to be almost insatiable. Cellular has developed since its inception in the early 1980s from an almost unknown technology to its ubiquitous character today.
And Fisher said that, if the United States takes the initiative in exploring the many technological and market opportunities that will arise from the “wireless revolution,” the nation could be a leader in providing products and services in the 21st century.
While a lot of early public attention on wireless technology and applications has focused on the glamorous, yet still undeveloped, world of PCS, industry observers point out that the market for in-office wireless products is developing here and now.
“The more people are exposed to the advantages of wireless technologies, the more they are going to demand those technologies in their offices,” says Peter Bernstein, vice president of Probe Research Inc. “Wireless is not just going to appeal to a niche office market; the option will be there in most PBXs and elsewhere.”
Although SUPERCOMM ’92 was not specifically oriented toward wireless technologies, there were significant products on display and being discussed that point the way to the promised wireless future.
Arguably the most significant new wireless office product was the Premier Microcel telephone system, which is marketed by Sprint’s North Supply subsidiary. The company was taking orders for initial deliveries this month. The product, receiving its first major public showing, is the first digital wireless key telephone system.
Bernstein predicts that the market for products like Microcel will grow rapidly during the next few years.
The unit’s low cost, ease of installation and operation, as well as its inherent voice security scheme, is expected to appeal to a wide range of businesses, including small companies, says Steven McMahon, president of Premier.
“We had a bookstore that used the product and the owner was thrilled with the ability of employees to take calls anywhere in the store, allowing them to more quickly and directly serve customers,” he says.
Although many small businesses have attempted to use conventional wireless phones in their operations, those phones are plagued by poor sound quality, short range, an inability to interface with advanced telecommunications premises equipment and a lack of security, industry analysts point out.
Cellular portable phones, while offering the necessary mobility and range, also suffer from security problems and have the added burden of high and usually unjustifiable usage costs in an office environment. Microcel’s digital and encryption technology makes eavesdropping impossible in the vast majority of cases, McMahon says.
And future competitive products are likely to provide similar voice security features, Bernstein notes.
Microcel functions as a four-line wireless key system and can operate as a stand-alone system or behind a PBX or Centrex, according to McMahon. The handsets offer multiline access, conferencing, paging, redialing and speed dialing, along with frequently called numbers.
The unit has a specified range of 50,000 square feet, an area larger than a football field and uses the 2.4-GHz band.
The basic system uses a common control unit (CCU) that acts as the central processor. Through connectors located on the back of the CCU, connection is made to both incoming lines from the public switched telephone network to the common radio units (CRUs). Up to four incoming lines and four CRUs can be connected to the CCU. The auxiliary telephone jack, bridged to line one on the CCU, can accept peripheral equipment such as an answering machine or facsimile machine.
The CRUs provide the in-building radio communication between the CCU and the handsets. Each CRU contains two radio links and can address up to two handsets at once. The radio links in Microcel are like talk paths in wired key systems, McMahon says. The CRUs will deliver “crisp” audio in a 125-foot radius, he adds. However, although developer Rose Communications Inc. and North Supply are introducing the first-of-its-kind product, Rose President and CEO John McNulty has no illusions regarding the competition, especially given the strong demand forecasted for wireless office systems.
“We have a competitive lead, but I wouldn’t want to speculate on how long it will last,” he says. “Obviously, others are going to try to compete with us. It’s only a matter of when. This market has such tremendous potential, I expect many strong competitors to enter.”
Meanwhile, in the PCS arena, Ameritech dominated SUPERCOMM ’92 by formally launching one of the most ambitious PCS trials yet undertaken in the U.S. As part of its long-awaited Chicago trial, the company plans to have 1000 trial users by the end of the year, according to Ameritech Vice Chairman Louis Rutigliano.
The company is using modified Motorola wireless equipment, as well as equipment supplied by Omnipoint Corp.
Under provisions of an experimental license granted to Ameritech by the Federal Communications Commission, the PCS trial is using the 1850-MHz to 1990-MHz band–the same band the FCC has targeted for PCS and other emerging wireless technologies, despite opposition from current fixed-point microwave users. The trial is scheduled to wrap up by the end of next year.
The market and technical test is being conducted in the central Chicago business district, known as the Loop, as well as in the city’s near north side and in suburban Arlington Heights. The inaugural call on the trial system was made during SUPERCOMM ’92 by George Wendt, who plays Norm on the TV show “Cheers” (Telephony, June 22, page 8).
The Motorola handset is a modified version of Motorola’s SilverLink PCS phone–a phone featured in other U.S. trials, notably Bell Atlantic Mobile Systems’ planned test in Pittsburgh.
The Malaysian-manufactured version being provided to Ameritech weights a record-breaking 6.6 ounces, making it the lightest portable handset of its kind. In addition to providing 1000 phones, Motorola is furnishing 100 base stations that will allow selected trial participants to use their phones as home-based cordless phones.
Motorola, however, is not the only wireless manufacturer furnishing equipment for the high-profile Ameritech PCS trial. For the CDMA portion, Colorado Springs, Colo.-based Omnipoint will provide 25 phones and 10 base stations.
CDMA is a spread spectrum digital coding technique. Spread spectrum’s attributes include a greater immunity to interference than other technologies and relatively low power requirements. Both elements are seen as particularly important in PCS.
As part of its major push into wireless telecommunications technology, Omnipoint exhibited during SUPERCOMM ’92 its dual-mode pocket phones for both PCS and private network operation, as well as the company’s DS-800 public microcell communications system.
The DS-800, earlier versions of which have been used in several PCS trials, offers a radial range of 2000 feet, or 3 million square feet of coverage per cell.
The Omnipoint dual-mode phones shown at SUPERCOMM can access the DS-800 PCS to allow wireless in-building use, says Mark Vonarx, director of sales and marketing. The phones can also be used for connection to the PSTN, as envisioned by public PCS offerings.
Using CDMA spread spectrum technology, Omnipoint claims that its DS-800 microcell offers high voice quality combined with a broad coverage area. The system operates in the industrial, scientific and medical 902-MHz to 928-MHz band, and does not require an FCC license. However, Vonarx says that Omnipoint plans to offer future versions that operate in the 1850-MHz to 1990-MHz band to take advantage of the FCC’s plan to designate that band for PCS and other wireless services.
The whole issue of spectrum allocation continues to be of concern and could retard the projected rapid growth of new wireless services, notes Probe’s Bernstein.
“Some manufacturers are waiting for the FCC to act before developing or introducing products,” he said. “That’s a potential hangup.”
FCC Chairman Alfred Sikes has promised quick action. However, the 1850-MHz to 1990-MHz band is currently occupied by point-to-point microwave users. And those users, consisting of public utilities, railroads, public safety groups and others, have been exerting pressure on Capitol Hill to make sure the FCC doesn’t act too quickly.
Meanwhile, Omnipoint’s public microcell system will be available for testing this summer with volume production slated for the fall, according to Vonarx. The system will be offered in both four-channel and eight-channel configurations.
Omnipoint’s customers include Ameritech, Bell Atlantic and Pacific Telesis.
Other wireless developments during SUPERCOMM ’92 included network wireless products, such as TeleSciences’ Wireless Network Systems (TWNS). TWNS was featured in demonstrations of the CASS 2000 and 3000 software systems. TWNS addresses a full range of wireless network applications, the company said.
Microwave Networks Inc. announced during the show that it will provide microwave radios to GTE Spacenet Corp. in conjunction with GTE’s role in Sovintel, a joint Russian-American venture set up to provide digital telephone and facsimile services linking Moscow with other countries. MNI will supply its MicroNet radios to link hotels and major business centers in Moscow with Sovintel’s satellite uplinks, it said. Those uplinks will connect users with the PSTN in other nations. MNI is providing seven MicroNet 18-GHz 4E1 links and is furnishing GTE Spacenet with portable equipment, the company said.
MNI also announced a new extended agreement with Telcel Celular C.A. to provide microwave systems. Telcel Celular is one of two Venezuelan cellular operators. By the end of this year, the company plans to have more than 90 microwave links in operation, completing the system.
Alcatel Network Systems showed its digital microwave products, including its MDR-4000e, MDR-5111 and RDI-3104, as well as exchange radio for rural telecommunications.
The MDR-5111, specially featured at SUPERCOMM ’92, is an 11-GHz digital radio carrying 12 DS-1s in 10-MHz of radiofrequency bandwidth. The 288 voice channel capacity is suited, according to Alcatel, for cellular as well as low-density spur routes for common carriers. The MDR-4000e is designed to serve as a field-upgradeable, SONET-compatible radio. The “e” version of the current MDR-4000 offers several enhancements, including wayside DS-1 in the overhead (one per DS-3), errorless receiver switching and rail repeaters.
Besides those displaying wireless technology products at SUPERCOMM ’92, some companies discussed their plans to provide support services to wireless manufacturers and service providers. Stratus Computer, for example, will work with GTE Airfone to upgrade air-to-ground telecommunications services. Stratus will provide four of its fault-tolerant Model 300 computers to handle calls, billing and network control for GTE Airfone’s new digital system, called GenStar. The computers will function as adjunct processors to digital switches provided by Advanced Business Communications.
Among other features, GTE Airfone’s GenStar is designed to allow those on the ground to reach airborne passengers. GTE Airfone, which has had a monopoly on aircraft public phones since receiving and FCC experimental license, is facing competition in the wake of the agency’s decision to open up the service to other qualified companies. The current prime, emerging competitor is In-Flight Phone Co., which recently announced a trial agreement with USAir to offer an advanced digital telecommunications service.
The growth in all wireless is forecasted to increase significantly in the next few years. The total wireless office market for voice, for example, is expected to be 18% of the total market by 1997, according to Market Intelligence Research Corp. With such growth estimates, there is no doubt that many more wireless products will be introduced in the next couple of years, joining those who are pioneering the transition to the cordless world.
Premier Inc’s Microcel portable cellular telephone is probably the most significant business product to be introduced at the SUPERCOMM ’92 trade show due to its low cost, simple operation and built-in voice security system. SUPERCOMM sees demonstrations of the convergence of microelectronics, wireless digital communications and computing technologies that creates opportunities unlike any that have previously been seen. Analysts predict a $600 billion market for wireless products and services by the year 2010. Personal communications services (PCS) are an especially important area of potential development as well as the market for in-office wireless products. American Information Technologies Corp’s (Ameritech) PCS testing uses modified Motorola wireless products in the 1850-MHz to 1990-MHz band as part of an experimental licensing scheme by the US Federal Communications Commission. The testing is expected to involve about 1,000 people by the end of 1992.
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